Metal Building Nomenclature Glossary
ACCESSORY – An extra building product which supplements a basic solid sheeted building such as door, window, skylight, ventilator, etc.
ACI – American Concrete Institute. The organization which has developed the recognized building code for design of concrete structures.
AISI – American Iron and Steel Institute
AISC – American Institute of Steel Construction
AISE – American Iron and Steel Engineers
ALUMINUM COATED STEEL – Steel coated with aluminum for corrosion protection
ANSI – American National Standard Institute
ANCHOR BOLTS – Bolts used to anchor structural members to a foundation or other support. Usually refers to the bolts at the bottom of all columns and door jambs.
ANCHOR BOLT PLAN – A plan view showing the size, location and projection of all anchor bolts for the metal building system components, the length and width of the foundation (which may vary from the nominal metal building size). Column reactions (magnitude and direction), and minimum base plate dimensions may also be included.
APPROVAL DRAWING – Approval Drawings may include framing drawings, elevations and sections through the building as furnished by the manufacturer for approval of the buyer. Approval by the buyer affirms that the manufacturer has correctly interpreted the overall contract requirements for the metal building system and its accessories, and the exact location of accessories in the building.
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS – A drawing which shows the plan view and / or elevations of the finished building for the purpose of showing the general appearance of the building, indicating all accessory location.
ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers
ASTRAGAL – A closure between the two leaves of a double swing or double slide door to close the joint
AUTOMATIC WELDING – A welding operation utilizing a machine to make a continuous, unbroken weld
AUXILIARY LOADS – All specified dynamic live loads other than the basic design loads which the building must safely withstand, such as cranes, material handling systems, machinery, elevators, vehicles and impact loads.
AWNING WINDOW – A window in which the vent or vents pivot outward about the top edge giving an awning effect.
AWS – American Welding Society
AXIAL FORCE – A force tending to elongate and shorten a member.
BASE ANGLE – An angle secured to the perimeter of the foundation to support and close wall panels.
BASE PLATE – A plate attached to the base of a column, which rests on the foundation or other support, usually secured by
BAY – The space between frame centerlines and primary supporting members in the longitudinal direction of the building.
BBC – Basic Building Code (see BOCA)
BEAM – A primary member, usually horizontal, that is subjected to bending loads. There are three types: simple, continuous, and cantilever
BEAM AND COLUMN – A primary structural system consisting of a series of rafter beams supported by columns. Often used as the end frame of a metal building system
BEARING PLATE – A steel plate that is set on the top of a masonry support on which a beam or purlin can rest
BENT – The primary member of a structural system.
BILL OF MATERIALS – A list of items or components used for fabrication, shipping, receiving, and accounting purposes.
BIRD SCREEN – Wire mesh used to prevent birds from entering the building through ventilators and louvers.
BLIND RIVET – A small headed pin with expandable shank for joining light gauge metal. Typically used to attach flashing, gutter, etc.
BLOCK OR BOARD THERMAL INSULATION – Rigid or semi-rigid thermal insulation preformed into rectangular units.
BOCA – Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc.
BONDED ROOF – A roof which carries a written warranty with respect to weather-tightness for a stipulated number of years.
BRACE RODS – Rods or cables used in roof and walls to transfer loads, such as wind loads, and seismic and crane thrusts to the
foundation. (Also often used to plumb buildings but not designed to replace erection cables.)
BRACKET – A structural support projecting from a wall or column on which to fasten another structural member. Examples are canopy brackets, lean-to brackets, and crane runway brackets.
BRIDGE CRANE – A load lifting system consisting of a hoist which moves laterally on a beam, girder, or bridge which in turn moves longitudinally on a runway made of beams and rails. Loads can be moved to any point within a rectangle formed by the bridge span and runway length.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU) – That amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (2.2 kg) of water by 1* F. (0.56* C.)
BUILDER / CONTRACTOR – A general contractor or sub-contractor responsible for providing and erecting metal building systems.
BUILDING CODE – Regulations established by a recognized agency describing design loads, procedures, and construction details
for structures. Usually applying to designated political jurisdiction (city, county, state, etc.)
BUILT-UP ROOFING – A roof covering made up of alternating layers of tar and asphaltic materials.
BUILT-UP SECTION – A structural member usually an “H” section, made from individual flat plates welded together.
BUTT PLATE – The end plate of a structural member usually used to rest against a like plate of another member in forming a
connection. Sometimes called a split plate or bolted end plate.
“C” SECTION – A member formed from steel sheet in the shape of a block “C” that may be used either singularly or back to back.
CAMBER – A predetermined curvature designed into a structural member to offset the anticipated deflection when loads are applied.
CANOPY – Any overhanging or projecting roof structure with the extreme end usually unsupported.
CANTILEVER – A projecting beam that is supported and restrained at one end only.
CAPILLARY ACTION – That action which causes movement of liquids when in contact with two adjacent surfaces such as panel sidelaps.
CAP PLATE – A plate located at the top of a column or end of a beam for capping the exposed end of the member.
CAULK – To seal and make weather-tight the joints, seams, or voids by filling with a waterproofing compound or material.
CHANNEL-HOT ROLLED – A member formed while in a semi-molten state at the steel mill to a shape having standard dimensions and properties.
CLIP – A plate or angle used to fasten two or more members together.
CLOSURE STRIP – A resilient strip, formed to the contour of ribbed panels used to close openings created by joining metal panels and flashing.
COLD FORMING – The process of using press brakes or rolling mills to shape steel into desired cross sections at room temperature.
COLLATERAL LOAD – All Specified additional dead loads other that the metal building framing, such as sprinklers, mechanical and electrical systems, and ceilings.
COLUMN – A primary member used in a vertical position on a building to transfer loads from main roof beams, trusses, or rafters to the foundation.
COMPONENT – A part of metal building system
CONTINUITY – The terminology given to a structural system denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to member, as if there were no connections.
CONTRACT DOCUMENTS – The documents which define the responsibilities of the parties involved in the sale, supply and erection of a metal building system. Such documents normally consist of a contract and specifications. Plans may be included.
CONTRACTOR – See Builder
COVERING – The exterior roof and wall covering for a
metal building system.
CRANE – A machine designed to move material by means of a hoist.
CRANE RAIL – A track supporting and guiding the wheels of a bridge crane or trolley system.
CRANE RUNWAY BEAM – The member that supports a crane rail and is supported by columns or rafters depending on the type of crane system. On underhung bridge cranes, a runway beam also acts as crane rail.
CURB – A raised edge on a concrete floor slab or skylight
CURTAIN WALL – Perimeter wall panels, which carry only their own, weight and wind load.
DAMPER – A baffle used to open or close the throat of ventilators.
DEAD LOAD – The dead load of a building is the weight of all permanent construction, such as floor, roof, framing and covering members.
DEFLECTION – The displacement of a structural member or system under load.
DESIGN LOADS – Those loads specified in building codes published by Federal, State, County, or City agencies, or in owner’s specifications to be used in the design of a building.
DIAGONAL BRACING – See Brace Rods
DIAPHRAGM ACTION – The resistance to racking generally offered by the covering system, fasteners, and secondary framing.
DOOR GUIDE – An angle or channel guide used to stabilize or keep plumb a sliding or rolling door during its operation.
DOWNSPOUT – A conduit used to carry water from the gutter of a building to the ground or storm drain.
DRIFT PIN – A tapered pin used during erection to align holes in steel members to be connected by bolting.
EAVE – The line along the sidewall formed by the intersection of the planes of the roof and walls.
EAVE HEIGHT – The vertical dimension from finished floor to the eave.
EAVE STRUT – A structural member at the eave to support roof panels and wall panels. It may also transmit wind forces from roof bracing to wall bracing.
ELASTIC DESIGN – A design concept utilizing the proportional behavior of materials when all stresses are limited to specified allowable values.
END BAY – The bays adjacent to the endwalls of a building. Usually the distance from the endwall to the first interior main frame measured parallel to the ridge.
END FRAME – A frame at the endwall of a building to support the roof load from one-half the end bay.
END WALL – An exterior wall which is perpendicular to the ridge of the building.
END WALL COLUMN – A vertical member located at the endwall of a building which supports the girts.
END WALL OVERHANG – The projection of the roof past the end wall.
ERECTION – The on-site assembling of fabricated components to form a complete structure.
ERECTION DRAWINGS – See Framing Drawings.
EXPANSION JOINT – A break or space in construction to allow for thermal expansion and contraction of the materials used in the structure.
EXTERIOR FRAMED – A wall framing system where the girts are mounted on the outside of the columns.
FABRICATION – The manufacturing process performed in a plant to convert raw material into finished metal building components. The main operations are coldforming, cutting, punching, welding, cleaning, and painting.
FASCIA – A decorative trim or panel projecting from the face of a wall.
FENESTRATION – Windows or other panes of glass; their number and location.
FIELD – The “job site”, “building site”, or general market area.
FILLER STRIP – See Closure Strip.
FILM LAMINATED COIL – Coil metal that has a corrosion resistant film laminated to it prior to the forming operation.
FINIAL – Gable closure at ridge.
FIXED BASE – A column base that is designed to resist rotation as well as horizontal or vertical movement.
FLANGE – The projecting edge of a structural member
FLANGE BRACE – A bracing member used to provide lateral support to the flange of a beam, girder, or column.
FLASHING – A sheet metal closure which functions primarily to provide weather-tightness in a structure and secondarily to enhance appearance.
FLUSH FRAMED – A wall framing system where the outside flange of the girts and columns are flush.
FOOTING – A pad or mat, usually of concrete, located under a column, wall, or other structural member, that is used to distribute the loads from that member into the supporting soil.
FORCE – The action of one body on another body, which changes or tends to change its state of rest or motion. A force may be expressed in pounds (Newton), kips, or other similar units and may act in any one of the following ways:
- Compression force: A force acting on a body tending to compress the body. (pushing action)
- Shear Force: A force acting on a body which tends to slide one portion of the body against the other portion of the body. (Sliding action).
- Tension Force: A force acting on a body tending to elongate the body. (pulling action)
- Torsion Force: A force acting on a body which tends to twist the body.
FOUNDATION – The substructure which supports a building or other structure.
FRAMED OPENING – Frame work (headers and jambs) and flashing which surround an opening in the wall or roof of a building; usually for field installed accessories such as overhead doors or powered roof exhausters.
FRAMING – The primary and secondary structural members (columns, rafters, girts, purlins, brace rods, etc.) which go together to made up the skeleton of a structure to which the covering can be applied.
FRAMING DRAWINGS – Plans and erection instructions which identify all individual parts in sufficient detail to permit the proper erection and installation of all parts of the metal building system furnished by the seller (also known as Erection Drawings).
GABLE – A triangular portion of the endwall of a building directly under the sloping roof and above the eave line.
GABLE ROOF – A ridged roof that terminates in gables.
GALVANIZED – Coated with zinc for corrosion resistance.
GIRDER – A main horizontal or near horizontal structural member that supports vertical loads. It may consist of several pieces.
GIRT – A secondary horizontal structural member attached to sidewall or endwall columns to which wall covering is attached and supported horizontally.
GLAZE OR GLAZING – The process of installing glass in windows and doors.
GRADE – The term used when referring to the ground elevation around a building.
GRADE BEAM – A concrete beam around the perimeter of a building carrying an exterior wall.
GROUT – A mixture of cement, sand, and water used to fill cracks and cavities. Often used under base plates or leveling plates to obtain uniform bearing surfaces.
GUTTER – A channel member installed at the eave of the roof for the purpose of carrying water from the roof to the drains or downspouts.
GUSSET PLATE – A steel plate used to reinforce or connect structural elements.
“H” SECTION – A steel member with an “H” cross section.
HAUNCH – The deepened portion of a column or rafter, designed to accommodate the higher bending moments at such points. (Usually occurs at connection of column and rafter)
HEADER – A horizontal framing structural member over a door, window, or other framed opening.
HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS – Any bolt made from steel having a tensile strength in excess of 100,000 pounds per square inch. Some examples are ASTM A-325 and A-490
HIGH STRENGTH STEEL – Structural steel having a yield strength in excess of 36,000 pound per square inch.
HINGED BASE – See Pin Connection
HIP ROOF – A roof, which rises by, inclined planes from all four sides of a building. The line where two adjacent sloping sides of a roof meet is called the HIP.
HOIST – A mechanical lifting device usually attached to a trolley, which travels along a bridge, monorail, or jib crane. May be chain or electric operated.
HOOD (DOOR) – The metal flashing used over exterior slide door track along the full length of the door header to protect the tracks from weather and to conceal them for aesthetic purposes.
HOT-ROLLED SHAPES – Steel sections (angles, channels, H beams, etc.) which are formed by rolling mills while the steel is in a semi-molten state.
ICBO – International Conference of Building Officials
ICE DAM – A build up of ice which forms a dam on the roof covering along the eave of the building.
IMPACT LOAD – An assumed dynamic load resulting from the motion of machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles and other similar moving forces.
IMPACT WRENCH – An electric or pneumatic device used to tighten nuts on bolts.
INSULATION – Any material used in building construction to reduce heat transfer.
INTERNAL PRESSURE – Pressure inside a building which is a function of wind velocity, and number and location of openings.
JACK BEAM – A beam used to support another beam or truss and eliminate a column support.
JACK TRUSS – A truss used to support another truss or beam and eliminate a column support.
JAMB – The vertical framing members located at the sides of an opening.
JIB CRANE – A cantilevered boom or horizontal beam with hoist and trolley. This lifting machine may pick up loads in all or part of a circle around the column to which it is attached.
JIG – A device used to hold pieces of material in a certain position during fabrication.
KICK-OUT (ELBOW) – (Turn-Out) A lower downspout section used to direct water away from a wall.
KIP – A unit of measure equal to 1,000 pounds (4.4 kN)
KNEE – The connecting area of a column and rafter of a structural frame such as a rigid frame.
KNEE BRACE – A diagonal brace designed to resist horizontal loads usually from wind or moving equipment. This member normally has the lower end connected to a column and the upper end connected to an eave strut.
LEAN-TO – A structure such as a shed, having only one slope or pitch and depending upon another structure for partial support.
LEVELING PLATE – A steel plate used on top of a foundation or other support on which a structural column can rest.
LINER PANEL – A panel applied as an interior finish.
LIVE LOAD – Live load means all loads, including snow, exerted on a roof except dead, wind, and lateral loads.
LOAD INDICATOR WASHER – A washer for high strength bolts in which pre-tension load can be measured as a function of amount of compression on raised portions of the washer.
LOADS – Anything that causes a force to be exerted on a structural member. Examples of different types are:
- Dead Load
- Impact Load
- Roof Live Load
- Seismic Load
- Wind Load
- Crane Load
- Collateral Load
- Auxiliary Load
LOUVER – An opening provided with fixed or movable, slanted fins to allow flow of air.
MASONRY – Anything constructed of materials such as bricks, concrete blocks, ceramic blocks, and concrete.
MASTIC – Caulking or sealant normally used in sealing roof panel laps.
MBDA – Metal Building Dealers Association (see SBA)
MBMA – Metal Building Manufacturers Association
METAL BUILDING FIBERGLASS INSULATION – A grade of fiber glass insulation blanket specifically manufactured for lamination to a vapor retarder.
MOMENT – The tendency of a force to cause rotation about a point or axis.
MOMENT CONNECTION – A connection between two members which transfers the moment from one side of the connection to the other side, and maintains under application of load the same angle between the connected members that exist prior to the loading. Also, a connection that maintains continuity.
MOMENT OF INERTIA – A physical property of a member, which helps define strength and deflection characteristics.
MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION – A method of pouring concrete grade beam and floor slab together to form the building foundation without forming and pouring each separately.
MONORAIL – A single rail support for a material handling system. Normally a standard hot-rolled I-beam
MULTI-GABLE BUILDING – Buildings consisting of more than one gable across the width of the building.
MULTI-SPAN BUILDING – Buildings consisting of more than one span across the width of the building. Multiple gable buildings and single gable buildings with interior posts are examples.
NBC – National Building Code.
NEWTON – SI unit of measure for force (N)
PANELS – See Roof Covering or Wall Covering
PARAPET – That portion of the vertical wall of a building which extends above the roof line at the intersection of the wall and roof.
PASCAL – SI unit of measure for force per unit area (N/m2)
PEAK – The uppermost point of a gable
PEAK SIGN – A sign attached to the peak of that building at the endwall showing the building manufacturer.
PERSONNEL DOORS – A door used by personnel for access to and exit from the building.
PIECE SIGN – A number given to each separate part of the building erection identification. Also called marks numbers and part number.
PIER – A concrete structure designed to transfer load from the base of a column to a footing.
PIG SPOUT – A sheet metal flashing designed to direct the flow of water out through the face of the gutter rather than through a downspout.
PILASTER – A reinforced or enlarged portion of a masonry wall to provide support for roof loads or lateral loads on the wall.
PIN CONNECTION – In structural analysis; a member connection to a foundation; another member or structure is designed in such a way that free rotation is assumed.
PINNED BASE – A column base that is designed to resist horizontal and vertical movement, but no rotation.
PLASTIC DESIGN – A design concept based on multiplying the actual loads by a suitable load factor and using the yield stress as the maximum stress in any member.
PLASTIC ROOF OR WALL PANELS – Panels used to admit light. They are normally of the same configuration as the metal roof or wall panels, and installed in the same plane.
PONDING – The gathering of water at low or irregular areas on a roof.
POP RIVET – See Blind Rivet
PORTAL FRAME – A rigid frame structure so designed that it offers rigidity and stability in its plane. It is used to resist longitudinal loads where diagonal bracing is not permitted. (Also “Wind Bent”)
POST (END POST) – A secondary column at the end of a building to support the girts and in a beam-and-column endwall frame, to additionally support the rafter.
PRE-PAINTED COIL – Coil of steel, which receives a paint coating prior to the forming operation.
PRESS BRAKE – A machine used in cold forming metal sheet or strip into desired cross sections.
PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE – Concrete in which the reinforcing cables, wires, or rods in the concrete are tensioned before there is load on the member, holding the concrete in compression for greater strength.
PRIMARY MEMBERS – The main load carrying members of a structural system, including the columns, endwall posts, rafters, or other main support members.
PRIMER PAINT – This is the initial coat of paint applied in the shop to the structural framing of a building for protection against the elements during shipping and erection.
PRISMATIC BEAM – A beam having both flanges parallel about its longitudinal axis.
PURLIN – A secondary horizontal structural member attached to the primary frame, which transfers the roof loads from the roof covering to the primary members.
RAFTER – A primary beam supporting the roof system.
RAILS (DOOR) – The horizontal stiffening members of framed and paneled doors.
RAKE – The intersection of the plane of the roof and the plane of the gable. (As opposed to endwalls meeting hip roofs.)
RAKE ANGLE – Angle fastened to purlins at rake for attachment of endwall panels.
RAKE TRIM – A flashing designed to close the opening between the roof and the endwall panels.
REACTIONS – The resisting forces at the column bases of a frame, holding the frame in equilibrium under a given loading condition.
REINFORCING STEEL – The steel placed in concrete to help carry the tension, compression, and shear stresses.
RIDGE – Highest point on the roof of the building, which describes a horizontal line running the length of the building.
RIDGE CAP – A transition of the roofing materials along the ridge of a roof. Sometimes called ridge roll or ridge flashing.
RIGID CONNECTION – See Moment Connection.
RIGID FRAME – A structural frame consisting of members joined together with rigid (or moment) connections so as to render the frame stable with respect to imposed loads, without the need for bracing in its plane.
ROOF COVERING – The exposed exterior roof skin consisting of panels or sheets, attachments and joint sealant
ROOF OVERHANG – A roof extension beyond the endwall/sidewall of a building.
ROOF PITCH – Ratio of rise to total width.
ROOF SLOPE – The angle that a roof surface makes with the horizontal. Usually expressed in units of vertical rise to 12 units of horizontal run.
ROLLING DOORS – Doors that are supported on wheels which run on a track.
SAG ROD – A tension member used to limit the deflection of a girt or purlin in the direction of the weak axis.
SAG STRAP OR SAG ANGLE – See Sag Rod
SANDWICH PANEL – A panel assembly used as covering; consists of an insulating core material with inner and outer skins.
SBA – Systems Builders Association
SBC – Standard Building Code. (See SBCCI)
SBCCI – Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc.
SCREEDING – The process of striking oil off the excess concrete to bring the top surface of the concrete to proper finish and elevation.
SEALANT – Any material which is used to close up cracks or joints to protect against leaks.
SECONDARY MEMBERS – Members which carry loads to the primary members. In metal building systems, this term includes purlins, girts, struts, diagonal bracing, wind bents, flange, and knee braces, headers, jambs, sag members, and other miscellaneous framing.
SECTION MODULUS – A physical property of a structural member. It is used in design and basically describes the bending strength of a member.
SECTIONAL OVERHEAD DOORS – Doors constructed in horizontally hinged sections. They are equipped with springs, tracks, counter balancers, and other hardware which roll the sections into an overhead position, clear of the opening.
SEISMIC LOAD – Seismic Load is the assumed lateral load acting in any horizontal direction on the structural system due to the action of earthquakes.
SELF-DRILLING SCREWS – A fastener which combines the function of drilling and tapping. It is used for attaching panels to purlins and girts.
SELF-TAPING SCREWS – A fastener which taps its own threads in a predrilled hole. It is for attaching panels to purlins and girts and for connecting trim and flashing.
SHEAR – The force tending to make two contacting parts slide upon each other in opposite directions parallel to their plane of contact.
SHEAR DIAPHRAGMS – See Diaphragm
SHEET GROOVE (REGLET) – A notch or block out formed along the outside edge of the foundation to provide support for the wall panels and serve as a closure along their bottom edge.
SHIM – A piece of steel used to level base plates or square beams.
SHIPPING LIST – A list that enumerates by part number or description each piece of material or assembly to be shipped. Also called tally sheet and bill of materials.
SHOULDER BOLT – A fastener used to attach wall and roof paneling to the structural frame. It consists of a large diameter shank and a small diameter stud. The shank provides support for the panel rib.
SHOT PIN – A device for fastening items by the utilization of a patented device which uses a powdered charge to imbed the item in the concrete and/or steel.
SI – The international symbol for the metric unit used bye the United States (Le Systeme International d’Unites)
SID LAP FASTENER – A fastener used to connect panels together at the side lap.
SILL – The bottom horizontal framing member of an opening such as a window or door.
SILL ANGLE – See Base Angle
SIMPLE SPAN – The term used in structural analysis to describe a support condition for a beam, girt, purlin, etc., which offers no resistance to rotation at the supports.
SINGLE SLOPE – A sloping roof with one surface. The slope is from one wall to the opposite wall of rectangular building.
SINGLE SPAN – A building or structural member without intermediate support.
SIPHON BREAK – A small groove to arrest the capillary action of two adjacent surfaces.
SLIDE DOOR – A single or double leaf door which opens horizontally by means of overhead trolleys.
SNOW LOAD – A load imposed on buildings or other structures due to snowfall.
SOFFIT – The underside covering of any exterior portion of a metal building system.
SOIL PRESSURE – The load per unit area a structure will exert through its foundation on the soil.
SPALL – A chip or fragment of concrete which has chipped, weathered, or otherwise broken from the main mass of concrete.
SPAN – The distance between supports of beams, girders, or trusses.
SPECIFICATIONS – A statement of particulars of a given job, as to size of the building, quality, and performance of men and materials to be used, and the terms of the contract. The most common specification found in the metal building systems industry is the “Recommended Guide Specifications for Metal Building Systems” published by the Metal Building Manufacturers Association.
SKYLIGHT – A roof accessory to admit light.
SPLICE – A connection in a structural member.
SQUARE – The term used for an area of 100 square feet (9.29 m2)
STAINLESS STEEL – An alloy of steel which contains a high percentage of chromium. Also may contain nickel or copper. Has excellent resistance to corrosion.
STIFFENER – A member used to strengthen a place against lateral or local buckling. Usually a flat bar welded perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member. Large concentrated loads, such as crane loads, usually require stiffeners at the point of connection.
STIFFENER LIP – A short extension of material at an angle to the flange of cold formed structural members, which adds strength to the member.
STILES – The vertical side members of framed and paneled doors.
STRAIN – A change in length per unit length. It is the deformation of a body that is acted upon by forces.
STRESS – A measure of the load on a structural member in terms of force per unit area (kips per sq. in.) (Mpa)
STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBERS – Load carrying members. May be hot-rolled sections, cold formed shapes, or built-up shapes.
STRUT – A brace fitted into a frame work to resist forces parallel to its length.
STUD – A vertical wall member to which exterior or interior covering or collateral material may be attached. May be either load bearing or non-load bearing.
SUCTION – A partial vacuum resulting from wind loads on a building which cause a load in the outward direction.
TAPERED MEMBER – A built-up plate member consisting of flanges welded to a variable depth web.
TEMPERATURE REINFORCING – Light-weight deformed steel rods or wire mesh placed in concrete to resist possible cracks from thermal expansion or contraction.
TENSILE STRENGTH – The longitudinal pulling stress a material can bear without tearing apart.
THERMAL BLOCK – A spacer of low thermal conductance material
THERMAL CONDUCTANCE ( C ) – The rate of heat flow, in BTU’s per hour, through a square foot of material or a combination of materials whose surfaces have a temperature differential of 1* F
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (k) – The rate of heat flow, in BTU’s per hour, through a square foot of material exactly one inch thick whose surfaces have a temperature differential of 1* F.
THERMAL RESISTANCE ( R ) – Resistance to heat flow. The reciprocal of conductance ( C ).
THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U) – The rate of heat flow per square foot under steady conditions from the air on the warm side of a barrier to the air on the cold side, for 1* F. of temperature difference between the two (BTU/Ft2 – hr- 1* F)
THRUST – The horizontal component of a reaction.
TIE – A structural members that is loaded in tension.
TORQUE WRENCH – A wrench containing an adjustable mechanism for measuring and controlling the amount of torque or turning force to be exerted – often used in tightening nuts or bolts.
TRACK – A metal way for wheeled components; specifically one or more lines of ways, with fastenings, ties, etc., for a craneway, monorail, or slide door.
TRANSLUCENT PANELS – See Plastic Roof or Wall Panels.
TRIBUTARY AREA – The area which contributes load to a specific structural component.
TRIM – The light gauge metal used in the finish of a building, especially around openings and at intersections of surfaces. Often referred to as flashing.
TRUSS – A structure made up of three or more members, with each member designed to carry a tension or compression force. The entire structure in turn acts as a beam.
TURN-OF-THE-NUT METHOD – A method for pre-tensioning high strength bolts. The nut is turned from the snug-tight position, corresponding to a few blows of an impact wrench or the full effort of a man using an ordinary spud wrench.
TURNOUT – See Kickout.
UBC – Uniform Building Code (See ICBO)
UPLIFT – Wind load on a building which causes a load in the upward direction. (See Suction)
VALLEY GUTTER – A channel used to carry off water from the “V” of roofs of multi-gabled buildings.
VENTILATOR – An accessory usually used on the roof that allows air to pass through
WAINSCOT – Wall material used in the lower portion of a wall that is different from the material in the rest of the wall
WALL COVERING – The exterior wall skin consisting of panels or sheets and their attachments, trim fascia, and weather sealants.
WEB – That portion of a structural member between the flanges.
WEB MEMBER – A secondary structural member interposed between the top and bottom chords of a truss.
WIND BENT – See Portal Frame.
WIND COLUMN – A vertical member supporting a wall system designed to withstand horizontal wind loads.
WIND LOAD – A load caused by the wind blowing from any horizontal direction.
“Z” SECTION – A member cold formed from steel sheet in the shape of a block “Z”.